Main Tendencies in the Approach Towards Built Heritage in Communist Poland *** Tendinţe principale în abordarea patrimoniului construit în Polonia comunistă


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The paper discusses the main tendencies in the approaches to the protection and reconstruction of historical buildings in Poland between 1944 and 1989. This period was affected by many factors, the most important of which begin the overwhelming destruction that occurred during World War II and the communist ideology imposed by the new political regime. Over this period, different, sometimes contradictory attitudes towards historical buildings could be seen. On the one hand, many were taken care of with tremendous effort, the reconstruction of Warsaw being the most spectacular example, on the other hand, some were seen as regrettable remnants of the adverse past (such was the fate of many of the historic buildings connected with the “oppressors” from the past). German or bourgeois origins of an edifice often deemed it to destruction, sometimes by means of dismantling for the purpose of acquiring building materials, sometimes by turning them into collectively run farms, which effectively wiped out all of their historic interiors and many of the estates themselves (in the whole country only one manor house has retained its original furnishings). The paper discusses these approaches and their evolution over the 1944-1989 period.

Keywords: Polish heritage, reconstruction, Polish school of conservation, dissonant heritage