Short History about the Historical Development of Fortifications in Europe and their Typology in Modern Age *** Scurt istoric despre evoluţia fortificaţiilor în Europa şi tipologia acestora în epoca modernă


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Using the example of pictures, the report shows a short history about the historical development of fortifications in Europe and their typology in modern age. Beginning in the eastern countries of the Mediterranean Sea, the development found its way from Italy to France and the Netherlands, ending in the Prussian and Austrian fortification periods of the 19th century. Also, territorial fortifications with bunker lines like the Maginot- or Stalin-Line of the 20th century are part of the historical development and are concluding the fortress period of modern age. It is only for this period that we have, for the moment, some proven knowledge about the typology, although we need further scientific research. For the period of earlier times, more evaluation of archaeological results is needed.
Keywords: historical development, fortifications, Europe, castellum, Germany, fortified cities, major fortresses, territorial fortifications